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Smoking - evaluation of the decisive role of the family structure and genetic polymorphism


It is estimated that 1.1 billion people use smoked tobacco in the world, consuming 6 trillion cigarettes / year (WHO, 2011). Active and environmental smoking caused 7 million deaths in 2010 (GBD, Lancet 2016). Studies show that nicotine meets the criteria to be defined as addictive drug (AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION, 1995). The difficulty in the cessation of its use is associated with this factor and with genetic and environmental factors. Among the various factors associated with smoking, family structure and genetic variability have gained interest. The family, considered the base of the society, can be both a risk factor and a protection factor in the development of chemical dependence (SCHENKER and MINAYO, 2005; SILVA and SOUZA, 2013). On the other hand, the role of the genetic profile involved in addition has been increasingly addressed. In a study using GWAS (Genome Wide Association Studies), it was possible to detect several clusters associated with nicotine dependence / heavy smoking, (BIERUT et al, 2007; SACCONE et al, 2007), the pleasurable response to smoking (SHERVA, 2008) , to the amount of cigarettes smoked (THORGEIRSSON et al, 2008), persistence in smoking and difficulty in smoking cessation (MUNAFO et al, 2011). Meta-analysis, with more than 74,000 participants (DAVID, 2012), evidenced the existence of a consistent association between genetics and the human behavior of nicotine dependence. METHODS Cross-sectional study involving the university community of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Campus of Cuiabá. Participants will include: 500 current smokers and 500 never smokers (smoked less than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and did not smoke in the last 30 days), matched by age, sex and schooling, selected among students, teachers and employees of UFMT, Aged between 18 and 70 years. Non-smokers, in addition to denying consumption, will be submitted to the measurement of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air, and should present values up to 6 ppm to be included in the study. Evaluation protocol: Participants will be submitted to the evaluations: 1.Sociodemografica; 2. Functional level of the family of origin, by means of an instrument that estimates the general level of functioning of the family of origin (MELCHERT, 2009), through the verification of the memories that the individual has, occurring until their 18 years of age. The score of each question varies from 1 to 5, and the higher the better the level of family functioning. It will be categorized as "dysfunctional" when the subscale average is up to 2.59 points and "functional" with an average of 2.60 and over. Instrument validated in Brazil (FALCKE, 2003). 3. Degree of nicotine dependence, through the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. 4. Abuse of drugs, as determined by the NHSDA, of the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse, an instrument used in Brazil in the II Household Survey on Psychoactive Drug Use in Brazil - CEBRID (CARLINI, 2005). 5. Genetic evaluation by the GWAS method, through the collection of 8 ml of blood of the participants, by nursing technician, immediately after the interview, in a tube with EDTA, stored in a refrigerator at 4 ° C in the biorrepository of the Hospital University student Júlio Müller. The samples will be sent to the Heart Institute of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo (InCor), every 30 days. In the Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology of the Heart Institute - InCor, DNA extraction and genomic profile determination will be performed according to ZHANG R et al, 2014. Statistical analyzes will be performed through descriptive analyzes, univariate comparative analyzes of the prevalence of Outcomes and multivariate analysis to determine the possible associations between family structure and genetic polymorphism and smoking and interaction between both. (AU)

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(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
MAIA-SILVA, KEYLA MEDEIROS; ZAMEL, NOE; SELBY, PETER; FERNANDES FONTES, COR JESUS; SANTOS, UBIRATAN PAULA. Tobacco smoking associated with adverse childhood experiences in a Brazilian community university sample: A case-control study. CHILDREN AND YOUTH SERVICES REVIEW, v. 120, . (17/15117-1)

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