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Production of marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in biofloc systems with low salinities


The production of marine species in waters with low salinity, developed in areas far from the coast can be denominated as interior aquaculture. In this type of system the water is salinized with an artificial source of salt, but it is only effective if there is a control of the ion composition present in these salts, which are associated with the physiological maintenance of the species produced. Natural sources of dilute marine water may not be effective in supplying these ions as there may be deficiency problems or ionic imbalance. This problem can be overcome by supplementing water with some salts, especially magnesium and potassium. However, this correction is an unfeasible strategy if the production is developed in traditional production systems, with high rates of daily water renewal. Biofloc systems operate with limited water changes, cycling nitrogenous compounds through the action of bacteria, without the need for water renewal. Therefore, creating an artificial water salinization system more adequate, reducing costs with the use of salts along the production. Production of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp is successful both in artificial salinization and biofloc systems, but alternative sources for obtaining these salts, which reduce operating costs, still deserve better studies. 'Desalination systems via inverse osmosis' (DSIO) may be an alternative source for obtaining salts, but the feasibility of this system still depends on the knowledge of the ionic composition of these salts and the cost with the implantation of this system for the production of marine shrimps in Biofloc systems. Investment in projects that develop aquaculture in closed systems, with no emission of effluents into the environment, guarantees greater biosafety, reduction of the use of areas, as they allow high storage densities to be used, especially when nursery systems are previously implanted and partial harvests are carried out over the production cycle. In addition to strategies that guarantee environmental preservation, the incentive to the economic development of the region is also of great importance and justifies the present proposal since in interior aquaculture systems it is possible to supply fresh marine species with high market value in regions far from the coast, such as the city of Campinas and its surrounding region. (AU)

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