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Evaluation of the fungicidal effects APROACH ® PRIMA in tadpoles of bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) by biomarker analysis


The use of biological indicators has increased in recent years with the aim to investigate environmental pollution, and the water environment are very vulnerable, and the important role agriculture as a major human activities that contribute to the increase in pollution, due to use of pesticides. These substances, among the environmental pollutants, have received recent attention for their potential to change people and the dynamism of communities. Biomarkers can help assess the health status of populations of amphibians, acting as final and sublethal parameters of intoxication. Because of the need to establish biomarkers with greater sensitivity, accuracy and fast information after exposure and action of environmental stressors and particularly of pesticides used in the environment, it will be tested analysis of extracutaneous pigmentary system and specifically in hematopoietic organs such as the spleen and liver, where reside melanomacrophages (MMCs).The amphibians occur on all continents, have wide geographical distribution, being found on all continents except Antarctica, and more abundant in tropical countries and the bullfrog is a species already used in aquatic ecotoxicology tests.The Aproach® Press is a systemic fungicide that contains picoxystrobin (the strobilurin group, electron flow inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration) and cyproconazole (the group of triazoles, ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors), used in preventive spraying to control diseases of the aerial part of the cotton crop, rice, coffee, sugarcane, corn, soybeans and wheat. As for hazard classification, belongs to the class III, medium being toxic and as to the environmental hazard potential classification, a class II, very dangerous to the environment, according to the product label data.This product was chosen to carry out the ecotoxicological tests, because of its use in the flooded rice culture, which is the main crop of the Paraíba Valley region and has a great interface with the aquatic environment. (AU)

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