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The European Union Water Framework Directive: applications using the phytoplankton as an environmental discriminator in Brazilian reservoirs


Most reservoirs in São Paulo State have their watersheds intensely occupied by anthropogenic and urban uses. These uses added to incipient sanitary coverage, give a worrying future for these ecosystems, as observed in Billings and Guarapiranga Reservoirs, both located in São Paulo city. Billings and Guarapiranga Reservoirs have a long negative quality of its waters, culminating with nearly 40 years of intense applications of copper sulfate and hydrogen peroxide to cyanobacteria control. This scenario suggests that Brazilian normatives are not efficient enough to stop or even reduce environmental impacts on water and sediment quality, this data pinpoint to the fact that the Brazilian management system has to be improved. A good example of water management can be observed in Water Framework Directive (WFD), the European water resources management system, water quality is not linked to the use but is associated with the ecological quality of the environment. The WFD adopts an ecosystem approach in order water bodies achieve a minimal degradation state. In 'good conditions' or 'good status' physical, chemical, biological and hydromorphological conditions have 'slight' deviation from the conditions of the water body without human action. For artificial water bodies the goal is to achieve a good ecological potential and a good chemical status for surface waters, considering the objectives for which these ecosystems were constructed. Studies with phytoplankton may take different approaches: (1) analysis of species and communities characteristics in their environment, (2) determination of different groups (indexes) and (3) analysis of parameters related to their biomass (defined by the concentration of pigments or biovolume). The WFD sets different index for the water quality based on different criteria, such as relative abundance of phytoplankton groups, the indicative value of classes and biomass. The adequacy of these rates must be tested for Brazilian water bodies. If necessary a specific index may be established for these environments. In Brazil there are few initiatives of studies based on the WFD, as the research developed in partnership between the Limnology research groups (ICT, UNESP, Sorocaba and the Department of Ecology, IB, USP - São Paulo, Brazil). Thus, this proposal aims to use phytoplankton as an environmental discriminator using the norms established by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in reservoirs in the State of São Paulo (Salto Grande, Barra Bonita, Broa, Itupararanga, Atibainha, braço Rio Grande, Paiva Castro, Igaratá, Jurumirim, Guarapiranga, Rio das Pedras e Taiaçupeba). The specific objectives of this project are: a) to characterize and compare the water bodies according physical, chemical and biological characteristics, b) to determine the phytoplankton biomass and relate it to the reservoir trophic, c) to analyze the total and intracellular cyanotoxins of these reservoirs, d) verify the adequacy of water quality indexes based on phytoplankton established by the WFD, f) establish an ecological potential index for reservoirs using phytoplankton and g) adjust some ecological steps as recommended by the WFD to the Brazilian reality. (AU)

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Scientific publications (8)
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
CARDOSO-SILVA, SHEILA; SOARES SILVA MIZAEL, JULIANA OLIVEIRA; FRASCARELI, DANIELE; DE LIMA FERREIRA, PAULO ALVES; ROSA, ANDRE HENRIQUE; VICENTE, EDUARDO; LOPES FIGUEIRA, RUBENS CESAR; POMPEO, MARCELO L. M.; MOSCHINI-CARLOS, VIVIANE. Paleolimnological evidence of environmental changes in seven subtropical reservoirs based on metals, nutrients, and sedimentation rates. CATENA, v. 206, . (16/15397-1, 16/17266-1, 14/22581-8)
ALINE MARTINS VICENTIN; EDUARDO HENRIQUE COSTA RODRIGUES; VIVIANE MOSCHINI-CARLOS; MARCELO LUIZ MARTINS POMPÊO. É possível avaliar o Potencial Ecológico de um reservatório usando a comunidade fitoplanctônica?. Acta Limnol. Bras., v. 30, . (16/17266-1, 14/22581-8)
CARDOSO-SILVA, SHEILA; SOARES SILVA MIZAEL, JULIANA OLIVEIRA; FRASCARELI, DANIELE; LOPES FIGUEIRA, RUBENS CESAR; POMPEO, MARCELO; VICENTE, EDUARDO; MOSCHINI-CARLOS, VIVIANE. Geochemistry and sedimentary photopigments as proxies to reconstruct past environmental changes in a subtropical reservoir. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, . (19/10845-4, 14/22581-8, 16/15397-1, 16/17266-1)
SOARES SILVA MIZAEL, JULIANA DE OLIVEIRA; CARDOSO-SILVA, SHEILA; FRASCARELI, DANIELE; MARTINS POMPEO, MARCELO LUIZ; MOSCHINI-CARLOS, VIVIANE. Ecosystem history of a tropical reservoir revealed by metals, nutrients and photosynthetic pigments preserved in sediments. CATENA, v. 184, . (16/15397-1, 16/17266-1, 14/22581-8)
POMPEO, MARCELO; MOSCHINI-CARLOS, VIVIANE; BITENCOURT, MARISA DANTAS; SORIA-PERPINYA, XAVIER; VICENTE, EDUARDO; DELEGIDO, JESUS. Water quality assessment using Sentinel-2 imagery with estimates of chlorophyll a, Secchi disk depth, and Cyanobacteria cell number: the Cantareira System reservoirs (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 28, n. 26, SI, p. 34990-35011, . (16/24528-2, 16/17266-1, 19/10845-4)
CARDOSO-SILVA, SHEILA; FRASCARELI, DANIELE; SILVA, DANIEL C. V. R.; LOPES FIGUEIRA, RUBENS CESAR; BITTENCOURT, MARISA DANTAS; MOSCHINI-CARLOS, VIVIANE; POMPEO, MARCELO. An abiotic typology and reference conditions for nutrients and chlorophyll-a in subtropical reservoirs (Sao Paulo State, Brazil). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 28, n. 13, p. 16029-16041, . (14/22581-8, 16/17266-1, 16/15397-1)
DE ALBUQUERQUE, FELICIA PEREIRA; DE OLIVEIRA, JHONES LUIZ; DOS SANTOS MACHADO, LEILA; RICHARDI, VINICIUS SOBRINHO; DA SILVA, MARIO ANTONIO NAVARRO; POMPEO, MARCELO LUIZ MARTINS; FRACETO, LEONARDO FERNANDES; CARLOS, VIVIANE MOSCHINI. Use of nontarget organism Chironomus sancticaroli to study the toxic effects of nanoatrazine. ECOTOXICOLOGY, v. 30, n. 4, p. 733-750, . (18/21142-1, 16/17266-1, 17/21004-5)
MACHADO, LEILA DOS SANTOS; DORR, FABIANE; DORR, FELIPE AUGUSTO; FRASCARELI, DANIELE; MELO, DARLLENE S.; GONTIJO, ERIK S. J.; FRIESE, KURT; PINTO, ERNANI; ROSA, ANDRE HENRIQUE; POMPEO, MARCELO M.; et al. ermanent occurrence of Raphidiopsis raciborskii and cyanotoxins in a subtropical reservoir polluted by domestic effluents (Itupararanga reservoir, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 29, n. 13, . (16/15397-1, 16/17266-1)

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