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Evaluation of urinary shedding and identification of chronic carriers of pathogenic leptospiras in dogs holded at public or private animal shelters of São Paulo Metroplitan Area

Abstract

SummaryLeptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis that affects a wide range of mammals, including dogs and humans, leading not only to clinical acute syndromes but also to asymptomatic or unnoticed illness. Leptospiral infection of humans is associated to direct or indirect contact to urine of rats, livestock and companion animals. The sinantropic rodents are considered the main reservoirs for Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae organisms throughout the world. Dogs and livestock animals may also play an important role in the epidemiology of leptospirosis, as they can act as reservoirs for others pathogenic leptospires. The dogs are known as reservoir for organisms of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Canicola . The infection of susceptible dogs with this serovar may result in an acute life-threatening renal disease with renal failure or in most of the cases, it leads to a mild disease, without overt clinical signs. After recovering, the dogs may shed leptospires in the urine for weeks or months. It is thought that apparently healthy animals could harbor leptospires within the renal parenchyma, leading to urinary shedding of the organisms. In a previous study, we could identify genetic material of pathogenic leptospires in the urine of dogs submitted to bacterial cultures to confirm low urinary tract infectious disease and in another set of urine samples submitted to routine urinalysis. The renal carrier state may contribute to maintenance of leptospires in the environment thus resulting in a risk of infection for human, dogs and other animals. To confirm this hypothesis, dogs maintained in public or private animal shelters will be evaluated for urinary shedding of leptospires. Urine samples will be submitted to real time PCR for leptospiral genetic material detection and blood samples will be obtained for anti-leptospiral antibodies search (Serum Microscopic Agglutination test). Attempts to isolate leptospires from dogs presenting DNA shedding will be done in urine samples obtained by aseptic catheterization or cystocentesis. To confirm the persistent shedding of leptospires, these dogs will be submitted to evaluation of physical conditions, renal biochemical profiles, urinalysis and leptospiruria (real time PCR an attempts to isolate the microorganism) twice a month during three months. For identification and characterization of the isolates, serum agglutination test with anti-leptospires polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and the definitive identification with MLVA test will be done. Simultaneously, attempts to identifying risk factors for leptospiral infection will be done. Physical and sanitary conditions of the installations, gender, age, vaccination status and origin of each dog will be evaluated as risk factors of leptospirosis. Univariate and multivariate analysis will be used to identify the risk factors. The identification of dogs with chronic renal shedding of pathogenic leptospires may allow the adoption of sanitary measures and promote an adequate treatment of infected ones, aiming to minimize the risk of infection for other dogs sharing the same installations and for humans, as occupational hazards. (AU)

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Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
MIOTTO, BRUNO ALONSO; MORENO, LUISA ZANOLLI; ALVES GUILLOUX, ALINE GIL; DE SOUSA, GISELE OLIVEIRA; LOUREIRO, ANA PAULA; MORENO, ANDREA MICKE; LILENBAUM, WALTER; VASCONCELLOS, SILVIO ARRUDA; HEINEMANN, MARCOS BRYAN; HAGIWARA, MITIKA KURIBAYASHI. Molecular and serological characterization of the first Leptospira santarosai strain isolated from a dog. Acta Tropica, v. 162, p. 1-4, . (12/13022-0, 12/14681-7, 13/17136-2)
MIOTTO, BRUNO ALONSO; TOZZI, BARBARA FURLAN; PENTEADO, MANOELA DE SOUZA; ALVES GUILLOUX, ALINE GIL; MORENO, LUISA ZANOLLI; HEINEMANN, MARCOS BRYAN; MORENO, ANDREA MICKE; LILENBAUM, WALTER; HAGIWARA, MITIKA KURIBAYASHI. Diagnosis of acute canine leptospirosis using multiple laboratory tests and characterization of the isolated strains. BMC Veterinary Research, v. 14, . (12/14681-7, 12/13022-0, 13/17136-2)
MIOTTO, BRUNO ALONSO; ALVES GUILLOUX, ALINE GIL; TOZZI, BARBARA FURLAN; MORENO, LUISA ZANOLLI; DA HORA, ALINE SANTANA; DIAS, RICARDO AUGUSTO; HEINEMANN, MARCOS BRYAN; MORENO, ANDREA MICKE; DE SOUZA FILHO, ANTONIO FRANCISCO; LILENBAUM, WALTER; et al. Prospective study of canine leptospirosis in shelter and stray dog populations: Identification of chronic carriers and different Leptospira species infecting dogs. PLoS One, v. 13, n. 7, . (12/14681-7, 12/13022-0, 13/17136-2)

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