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Obtaining wheat cultivars through diploidization of dihaploid strains obtained from culture of anthers in vitro


To produce dihaploid strains of wheat in a short space of time, via cultivation of anthers in vitro from F1 plants, with a view to obtaining new more productive varieties and with better agronomic characteristics. Dihaploid strains of wheat can be obtained already in the F2 generation, using the technique of cultivation of anthers in vitro. In this way, the cycles of selection from F3 to F8 are unnecessary, which resounds in a considerable economy in time and resources, around six years. Another advantage, is the possibility of obtaining recombinant types, which would with difficulty be detected in the traditional selection process. Methodology: We will use the F1 hybrids derived from hybridization between the IAC-24 cultivars and others of Mexican origin. The IAC-24 cultivar, of high androgenetic capacity, is of semi-dwarf size, susceptible to leaf rust, of early to medium cycle and produces high quality flour for bread-making, a vital quality in the commercial value of the grain. The IAC-24 cultivar displays high tolerance to toxic aluminum in the soil, producing in acid and arid soil, around 2,000 kg/ha. In corrected and fertilized soil with irrigation by aspersion, the productivity reaches 4,000 kg/ha. The tolerance to Al is conditioned by a pair of dominant genes, being easily incorporated. The Mexican strains are very sensitive to AL, being totally unproductive in acid soils. In corrected and fertilized soil, the productivity of these genotypes can outperform the IAC-24, producing around 5,500 kg/ha, showing greater potential for production. These strains, in addition to high production potential, display resistance to leaf rust and are also suitable for bread-making. The genotypes used, IAC-24 and Mexican strains, are of greater interest for the program of improvement of IAC wheat. Hybridizations will be carried out between them and the immature inflorescences collected for plating of the anthers. Obtaining haploid plants, duplicated immediately via colchicine, will enable a considerable economy of time and resources in the production of new varieties, in addition to the possibility of obtaining recombinant species. The dihaploid strains already existing will be tested in the field, given that the new ones to be obtained will enter into agronomic competitive tests later on, together with other commercial varieties. (AU)

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