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BioFuture in the City project proposes an action-research initiative to generate changes and knowledge regarding urban green spaces' biodiversity and ecosystem services, their perception, and governance by citizens, public managers, and professional researchers. The transformation strategy involves bridging these social actors (social subsystem) with species, interactions, and ecosystem services (natural subsystem) through questions, observations, and reflections co-produced through citizen science. The potentials and challenges of this transformation, as well as co-production and citizen science as educational strategies, will also be evaluated in the research. The theoretical framework of complex adaptive systems will facilitate transdisciplinary approaches by fostering a systemic approach that engages various forms of knowledge while acknowledging the specificities of each type of knowledge and its methods. We have chosen to study the urban areas of the four municipalities home to UFSCar, as cities are complex adaptive systems where the relationships between society and nature are often conflicting, offering educational potential. Therefore, our objectives are to explore the educational potential of urban territories in the transition to sustainability and propose improvements; promote co-construction and citizen science; investigate the biodiversity, ecosystem services, and socio-environmental governance of urban green areas as complex adaptive systems; understand how the management and governance of urban green areas align with broader agreements, guidelines, and public policies. We will conduct a synthesis of the available knowledge on the study topics. Co-construction and citizen science projects in municipalities will prioritize local schools and users of urban green spaces, with researchers and professionals conducting joint research. The social subsystem characterization will focus on the governance of urban green spaces and citizens, academic researchers, and managers' perceptions regarding the biodiversity and ecosystem services they provide. Data will be collected through interviews, focus groups, reports, and field observations. The natural subsystem will be characterized through participatory surveys of biodiversity and ecosystem services in urban areas, considering groups of plants, fungi, microorganisms, vertebrates, and invertebrates, species of interest for natural products, and ecosystem services. It will employ observational or collection methods and reference collections. Specific methods will include environmental DNA and DNA derived from invertebrates for mammals and birds, "fit count" for plant-pollinator interactions, integrative taxonomy (metagenomics and morphology) for terrestrial arthropods, and microbial cultures. The project will perform landscape analyses, mapping, and qualitative assessments of the integrity and resilience of urban green spaces. The results will be presented and discussed in municipal congresses open to the public. Communication is critical in this project, spanning social networks, field guides, playful and educational material, summaries for decision-makers, and scientific articles. Data and information management will occur through a database available on the BioFuture website's dedicated platform and will be integrated into broader geographic platforms like SINBIOTA 2.1. Project evaluations will occur monthly based on activity and outcome indicators. The team consists of 58 researchers, and the proposal development process has been collective and transdisciplinary since June 2022, initiated with the creation of the Biodiversity for the Future Thematic Working Group at UFSCar's Institute of Advanced and Strategic Studies. We will search for additional resources for activities in municipalities and the continuation of the project. (AU)

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