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Effect of Nisin and Lactoferrin on the viability and production of volatile sulfur compounds in oral bacteria and development of chitosan nanoparticles as a sustained release system for topical oral application

Abstract

Halitosis is a term used to describe the emanation of unpleasant odors from the air exhaled through the mouth or upper airways. Its main cause is related to oral problems, which can affect up to 65% of the world population. Volatile Sulfide Compounds (VSCs), such as Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)), Methyl Mercaptan (CH3SH) and Dimethyl Sulfide [(CH3)2S)], produced mainly by the metabolism of Gram-negative oral bacteria, are the main gases identified in patients with halitosis. Considering the absence of a standard therapy, it is necessary to search for new compounds, especially those with advantages in relation to the products available on the market. Substances such as nisin and lactoferrin have been investigated for their antimicrobial potential. As advantages, they have a broad spectrum of action, low ability to induce bacterial resistance, and relatively affordable cost. Therefore, this project aims to investigate the effect of nisin and lactoferrin on the viability of oral bacterial species related to the biofilm formation and halitosis, verify the interference of these substances in the production of VSCs in vitro, their biocompatibility in human oral cells, in addition to tests aimed at the development of formulations for oral topical use. Then, tests will be carried out to determine the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations, substance association assays, transmission electron microscopy, gene expression of factors related to cell wall stress response, ability to inhibit the formation of mono and multispecies bacterial biofilms, quantification of VSCs by gas chromatography, in addition to the development of chitosan nanoparticles containing one of the antimicrobials. Data from this project will contribute to provide evidence to the possible use of these compounds in halitosis therapy, which may result in the inclusion of these substances in oral products. (AU)

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