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Preparation and Application of Composite Electrodes Based on Graphite and Polymers: miniaturization, screen printed electrodes and flexible sensors

Grant number: 22/15211-6
Support Opportunities:Regular Research Grants
Duration: October 01, 2023 - September 30, 2025
Field of knowledge:Physical Sciences and Mathematics - Chemistry - Analytical Chemistry
Principal Investigator:Éder Tadeu Gomes Cavalheiro
Grantee:Éder Tadeu Gomes Cavalheiro
Host Institution: Instituto de Química de São Carlos (IQSC). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Carlos , SP, Brazil
Associated researchers: Ana Paula Garcia Ferreira ; Carla Cristina Schmitt Cavalheiro ; Rafael Martos Buoro


The development of alternative electrodes to mercury assumes significant importance, considering its use in regions of more negative potentials, in which this metal oxidizes, as well as the restrictions regarding its toxicity. Carbon electrodes are a prominent alternative, considering the different forms in which this element appears and its versatility as an electrode material. Recently, both in the specialized literature and in papers presented at relevant conferences, such as the Congress of the International Society of Electrochemistry (ISE), the Symposium Ibero-American on Electrochemistry (SIBAE) and the Symposium Brazilian on Electrochemistry and Electroanalytics (SIBEE), in their latest editions, they make it clear that there is a strong trend in the modification of electrodic surfaces with carbon nanostructures and metallic nanoparticles in the electrochemical sensing of the most diverse analytes of environmental, pharmaceutical and technological interest, in general. In addition, we have a trend towards remote and wearable sensors, which can be prepared with carbon composites, as long as they are flexible. Our group has been dedicated for 20 years to the development of composite electrodes based on graphite and polymers (polyurethane of vegetable origin, silicone rubber and commercial epoxy resins), with remarkable success in several applications, such as in the determination of drugs and metallic ions in different samples. These analytical strategies involve techniques such as cyclic, differential pulse and square wave voltammetry, in addition to amperometric detection in flow. In this proposal, it is intended to continue these works, promoting the modification of the electrode matrices with new carbon nanostructures (acetylen black and carbon black), metallic nanoparticles aiming to improve their sensitivity, in parallel with the development of composite electrodes of reduced dimensions, seeking to present electrode materials in new physical forms and aiming their application in the determination of metallic ions in environmental samples and non-aqueous media (ethanol fuel), drugs in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples. Another electrode preparation strategy, in the form of electrodes and screen printed on flexible supports, must be carried out and the resulting electrodes, modified or not, will be tested for their applicability in the analytes described above. (AU)

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