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Assessment of physiological effects of innovative antifouling nanomateriais in the brown mussel Perna perna


Since the banning of tributyltin (TBT) as a biocidal agent, several compounds have been tested as active ingredients in the formulation of antifouling paints, such as DCOIT, or Sea-Nine (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazoline -3-um), which has been used in the third generation antifouling paints. Nanomaterials have also been used as antimicrobials, especially different silver nanoparticles (AgNP). Currently, new antifouling compounds have been developed, such as silica nanocapsules impregnated with silver and containing DCOIT, aiming to reduce environmental risks and increase the effectiveness of the antifouling action. However, there are few studies reporting the ecotoxicological effects of these isolated and combined substances on non-target organisms and their ecological risks; moreover, its mechanisms of action at individual levels are still poorly understood. The present project aims to determine the physiological effects in the mussel Perna perna caused by the exposure to Ag salts, DCOIT, simple and silver-impregnated silica nanocapsules, and the respective nanocapsules containing DCOIT, in order to obtain information on the main mechanisms of action of these substances, necessary to calculate the ecological hazards and risks related to these new biocides. This Visiting Professor Project also aims to add knowledge to the APR FAPESP Project "Evaluation of the bioaccumulation and toxicity of innovative anti-fouling nanomaterials in neotropical and subtropical marine invertebrates" (Process 2020/03004-0), in which biochemical, cellular and histological effects are currently being studied. Adult mussels of P. perna species will be acquired in a mussel farm located in Caraguatatuba (SP), and exposed (96h) to such the aforementioned substances, at environmentally relevant concentrations, considering at least 3 concentrations of each and the negative control (clean sea water). Thirty animals will be used in the experiments, which will be carried out in tanks and kept under controlled conditions of temperature and photoperiod. At the end of 96 hours, physiological parameters of the exposed organisms will be analyzed - heartbeat rate (using CAPMON equipment) and oxygen consumption, to detect the effects caused by exposure to these compounds. This proposal has an innovative character, as it is the first study to consider the physiological effects of this set of substances on non-target organisms in neotropical environments, and the results obtained will provide information for the development of new antifouling materials with lower environmental impact, in addition to generate subsidies for future environmental legislation regarding nanomaterials or antifouling substances. (AU)

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