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Evaluation of the relationship between subgingival and intestinal microbiomes of patients with periodontal diseases and the impact of prebiotic therapy on the modulation of these microbiomes

Abstract

A dysbiotic intestinal microbiota can lead to systemic inflammation and favor oral dysbiosis, contributing to the progression of periodontal tissue destruction. On the other hand, in individuals with periodontal diseases, swallowing high doses of periodonto pathogenic microorganisms may favor dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, with an altered microbiome in terms of composition and/or function. Investigations on the potencial of prebiotics for the modulation of these microbiomes and periodontitis treatment are still scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this study will be to evaluate the effects of the prebiotic polydextrose (PDX) on the development of experimental periodontitis in rats. 44 male rats will be used. They will be randomly assigned into 4 groups (n = 11): group Control (C): animals without periodontitis induction and that will not receive the prebiotic PDX; group Experimental Periodontitis (EP): animals with periodontitis induction and that will not receive PDX; group Prebiotic (PREB): animals without EP and that will receive PDX; and group EP/PREB: animals with EP and that will receive PDX. In groups PREB and EP/PREB, PDX will be administered in the drinking water of the animals, once a day, from day -30 until the end of the experiment (day +14). In groups EP and EP/PREB, periodontitis will be induced by the placement of a cotton thread ligature around the mandibular first molars of each animal on day 0, and will remain in place for 14 days. All animals will be euthanized on day +14 of the experiment. The following parameters will be analyzed: i) alveolar bone loss using X-Ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT); ii) connective tissue attachment level using histomorphometric analysis; iii) histopathological features of periodontal tissue; iv) immunohistochemical expression of TRAP, TNF-±, IL-1², IL-10, TGF-²1 and CINC on periodontal tissue; v) histometric analysis of small intestine; vi) immunohistochemical expression of TNF-±, IL-1², IL-10, TGF-1², CL-1 and OC on small intestine; vii) oral and intestinal microbiomes using sequencing by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. The data obtained will be statistically analyzed (p<0.05). (AU)

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