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Development of Point of Care (POC) for creatinine with electrochemical biosensor


Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), a health condition that is often asymptomatic and severe, is characterized by loss of nephron function, caused mainly by hypertension and diabetes. The number of cases in the world has increased dramatically in recent decades, increasing the burden on health systems and concerning world authorities. It is estimated that, in 2017, the prevalence of CKD was around 700 million cases worldwide and up to 17 million in Brazil. The number of related deaths reached 1.2 million in the world, in 2015, and 35 thousand in Brazil, in 2017. The early diagnosis of CKD can delay or even interrupt the progression to the most serious stages. The biological marker of greatest clinical relevance for CKD is creatinine, which is a molecule present in human blood and urine, filtered in the kidneys at a virtually constant rate, and it is the product of the degradation of phosphocreatine in muscles, involved in the metabolism of muscle energy production. Its concentrations in the blood and urine indicate the state of renal and muscle functioning, as well as possible dysfunction in the thyroid. The worldwide shortage of manufacturers of portable devices known as "Point of Care" (POC) for creatinine, coupled with the increase in world demand for rapid exams indicate an excellent commercial opportunity. Therefore, the objective of the current research project is to develop a POC device, based on electrochemical biosensors, for the rapid determination of the creatinine concentration in human blood and urine, allowing the immediate calculation of the Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR). The main advantages in relation to the conventional colorimetric analysis will be the reduction of operational cost, time, complexity and amount of sample, enabling near-patient-testing in pharmacies and wards, for example, without the need for qualified personnel, or even by the patients themselves at home. In addition, since it is portable and inexpensive, such device can be used in field campaigns to conduct tests on a large scale, in populations living in remote and difficult to access locations. (AU)

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