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Kinematics of the axial segment of horses submitted to dynamic mobilisation exercises

Grant number: 21/02657-3
Support type:Regular Research Grants
Duration: October 01, 2021 - September 30, 2022
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Animal Husbandry
Principal researcher:Kátia de Oliveira
Grantee:Kátia de Oliveira
Home Institution: Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Tecnológicas. Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Dracena. Dracena , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Functional training is commonly used in exercise protocols to manage spinal pain, to restore pain-free range of motion and function of this segment in humans. However, there is a scarce amount of research supporting the effects of these exercises on the kinematics of the thoracolumbar region in horses. This study aims to investigate the kinematic effects of dynamic mobilization exercises on the axial segment in asymptomatic leisure horses. Twelve horses without defined breed will be used. They will be monitored before (day 0) and at the end of the experimental period (day 120). The treatments consisted of two experimental groups: one consisted of horses that did not perform the dynamic mobilisation exercises (control), and the other consisted of horses submitted to the mobilisation programme. The horses will be distributed in an entirely randomised design, with six repetitions per treatment. The dynamic mobilisation exercises will be performed on the horses three times a week for four months. The experimental horses will be submitted to a series of dynamic mobilisation exercises consisting of three longitudinal cervical flexions (head at the chest, head between the carpals, head between the hooves), one cervical extension and three lateral cervical flexions (head at the shoulder, patella and hock), right and left sides, totalling ten mobilisations. The static kinematic variables will be evaluated as depth (mm), angle (°), variation in depth (mm) and variation in angle (°) for each individual vertebral level analysed (T10, T13, T17, L1 and L3), as well as the ventral displacement of the ischial tuberosity, in relation to the ground, by means of hemispherical markers. Hemispherical markers will be applied to seven dorsal spinous processes and to the ischial tuberosity. The dorsal markers will be placed at the highest point of the withers, T10, T13, T17, L1, L3 indicated by palpation of the ribs, at the midpoint between the sacral tuberosities (ST), located by palpation of the ST, signaling the spinous process of the first sacral vertebra, as well as the ischial tuberosity, identified by palpation. Photographic images of the horses will be taken using an iPad mini (Apple iPad mini model A1432, Apple, Cupertino, CA, USA). The images taken will be analysed with the help of the Corel Draw software (version X7). Kinematic data of the horses' spine will be presented as mean, with standard deviation (±d.p.) as a measure of dispersion. Variables will be evaluated for normality of distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. For data with normal distribution the analyses will be conducted using ANOVA (SAS, 2000). In case the data are not normally distributed, the Wilcoxon test will be used. For the variables obtained before and after in the same horse will be compared by means of the paired t-test. The statistical tests will use 5% probability. (AU)

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