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Neutron stars: structure, evolution and gravitational waves

Abstract

This Plan aims to advance in the knowledge of the populations and structure of neutron stars. We propose to investigate the objects resulting from the mergers (fusions) of NSs detected in gravitational waves and electromagnetic frequencies: their final mass distribution, both for NSs remnants (if any) and BHs. We will help to establish the origin of the merging binary systems, their evolutionary channels and their diversity. We will study the issue of maximum mass (with important consequences for the state of super-dense matter), in particular that indicated by the "spider" binary systems that could produce the largest masses of NS in Nature, and possibly low-mass black holes to be searched for in real X-ray sources. Finally, we will calculate the nucleosynthesis resulting from fusion events where the two compact stars are "exotic" in composition and we will work to refine and firm NS-NS fusions as "standard sirens", in order to determine the Hubble constant with errors ~ 1 % independently. (AU)

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