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The human occupation of southeast South America through the Holocene: an interdisciplinary, multiescalar and diacronic approach

Grant number: 19/18664-9
Support type:Research Projects - Thematic Grants
Duration: July 01, 2020 - June 30, 2025
Field of knowledge:Humanities - Archeology - Theory and Methods in Archaeology
Principal researcher:Astolfo Gomes de Mello Araujo
Grantee:Astolfo Gomes de Mello Araujo
Home Institution: Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Pesquisadores principais:
Camilo de Mello Vasconcellos ; Francisco Sergio Bernardes Ladeira
Assoc. researchers:Artur Chahud ; Bruce Arlan Bradley ; Cláudia Inês Parellada ; Erminio Fernandes ; Ethan Edwad Cochrane ; Fabio Parenti ; Francisco Silva Noelli ; Fresia Soledad Ricardi Torres Branco ; Gelvam André Hartmann ; Glauco Constantino Perez ; Jedson Francisco Cerezer ; João Carlos Moreno de Sousa ; Jonas Gregorio de Souza ; Julio Cesar Paisani ; Leandro Elias Canaan Mageste ; Marcelo Knorich Zuffo ; Maria Mercedes Martinez Okumura ; Marianne Sallum ; Marilia Perazzo Valadares do Amaral ; Otis Norman Crandell ; Robson Antonio Rodrigues ; Stephen Walter Silliman
Associated scholarship(s):21/04562-0 - The establishment of cultural transmission networks among the Tupiguarani groups in the State of São Paulo, BP.PD
21/04565-9 - The historical demography of Tupiniquim women and their participation in the creation of colonial materiality in the captaincy of São Vicente - 16th century, BP.IC
21/04569-4 - The map of colonial settlements in the southeastern region of São Paulo: 16th and 17th centuries, BP.IC
19/17868-0 - Archaeology of colonialism and persistence: a comparative approach of native practices between São Paulo (Brazil) and New England (United States), BP.PD

Abstract

This project aims, on the one hand, to continue the research developed by our team since 2010, and, on the other hand, to broaden the scope of the surveys by covering other time bands and a larger geographic area. The general objective of the previous projects was to contribute to the understanding of the processes related to the occupation of Southeast Brazil by the first human groups that arrived in the Americas. The present project expands the scope of the previous projects with a view to providing an organized and diachronic picture of human occupations that have succeeded and lived in South-East South America, covering the territories of the present states of São Paulo and Paraná, and covering all Holocene. Its general objective is to map the cultural characteristics of the different human groups in the past, aiming to provide support for the understanding of the relations of these groups with the reigning paleoenvironments and with the neighboring human groups, allowing the elaboration of more robust models on hot topics like the occupation the transition from hunter-gatherer life-forms to horticulture, the cultural persistence of hunter-gatherer groups after the advent of horticultural groups and, finally, indigenous cultural persistence in today's society. It is hoped, therefore, to establish scenarios of interaction and cultural change over the last 12,000 years for the region. Such models should form a basis for future discussions and research, currently constrained by the paucity of structured data.The project is divided into four main axes of action: 1) continuity of explorations and archaeological excavations explicitly aimed at the detection of sites related to the Paleoindian Period, with the study of the archaeological materials and of the formation processes in these sites, taking into account the climatic variations occurring in the last 12,000 years and their possible consequences in geomorphological and landscape terms; 2) spatial, formal and technological characterization of the different lithic industries and styles of rock art that occur in the territory of interest, aiming at the establishment of a synchronic and diachronic picture of the hunter-gatherer groups along the Holocene; 3) spatial, formal and technological characterization of the different ceramic industries occurring in the territory of interest, aiming at the establishment of a synchronic and diachronic picture of the horticultural groups during the Final Holocene, including their relations with the groups of hunter-gatherers who continued to occupy parts of the territory; 4) analysis of the colonial and postcolonial interactions that have been established between indigenous and Europeans, focusing on the State of São Paulo, based on the study of their material culture, with the insertion of indigenous groups remaining in the different villages in São Paulo (especially Kaingang and Guarani) in this deep historical framework, addressing its current presence as part of an ongoing and extremely long process of persistence and cultural resistance, with the aim of avoiding the split between domains of "archaeological" discourse on the one hand, and "historical "Or" anthropological "on the other, which result in approaches that are often watertight and poorly fruitful.While the first axis strongly dialogues with Earth Sciences and Quaternary studies, applying an integrative approach, taking into account the processes of anthropic accumulation, geomorphogenesis and paleoenvironmental indicators, the second and third axes refer to archaeological and archeometric methods and procedures . The fourth axis, on the other hand, establishes a deeper dialogue with the Humanities, crowning an eminently interdisciplinary approach. This fourth axis will also be developed based on the principles of a Public Archeology Program. (AU)

Articles published in Pesquisa FAPESP Magazine about the research grant:
En la época de las cavernas 
Cave times 
Articles published in Agência FAPESP Newsletter about the research grant:
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