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Influence of L-glutamine supplementation in the sarcopenia and immune/inflammatory response both systemic and in the respiratory tract of elderly practitioners or not of a regular program of combined physical exercises submitted to Influenza virus vaccine

Abstract

Aging is a multifactorial phenomenon that can be defined as a dynamic and progressive process in which morphological, functional, biochemical and psychological alterations occur due to the interaction of a several variables such as genetic factors, lifestyle and diseases. In general, such alterations lead to loss of functional capacity of many organic systems. Among the most altered, it is can highlight the immune and also the skeletal muscle systems. Regarding the aging of the immune system, named immunosenescence, it is characterized by a higher susceptibility to infections, cancer and increased laboratory expression of autoimmunity. In relation to the alterations on the skeletal muscle system due to aging, there is an increased risk of developing sarcopenia, which is characterized by the loss of strength and skeletal muscle mass as well as reduction of physical mobility that can lead to severe consequences of daily life activities. Both immunosenescence and sarcopenia in the elderly subjects are largely influenced by the "inflamm-aging", which is characterized by a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation associated with aging. However, the degree of decline in the immune response and development of sarcopenia is different among elderly population, because several everyday habits, such as regular practice of physical exercises and also supplementation with protein or amino acids, especially glutamine, may contribute to the maintenance of immune response function and muscle mass. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of L-glutamine supplementation on the muscle mass and function (which characterizes the sarcopenia) as well as both systemic and upper airways immune/inflammatory response of elderly practitioners or not of a regular program of combined physical exercise training (with aerobic and resistance physical exercises) submitted to the vaccination against the Influenza virus. For this purpose, we will use data and biological samples, previously stored, that it was obtained before and 30 days after vaccination against Influenza virus from two groups of elderly: non-practitioners (NP, n = 45) or practitioners of a regular program of combined exercise training, both aerobic and resistance (CET, n = 45). It is worth mention that on the same day of vaccination, volunteers from each group were separated into two subgroups: L-glutamine, that received 30 doses of L-glutamine (0.3 g / kg body weight) + maltodextrin (0, 3g / kg body weight) or placebo that received 30 doses of maltodextrin (0.6g / kg body weight). All volunteers were oriented to dilute the supplements in 250mL of water and immediately ingest the solution once daily during 30 days. In order to determine the presence and degree of sarcopenia in the volunteers of each subgroup, it were performed the evaluation of muscle strenght using Handgrip; body composition by bioimpedance and also mobility physical through the Short Physical Performance Battery. Regarding the immune/inflammatory response evaluation, all volunteers were submitted to vaccination against Influenza virus and blood samples, saliva and nasal lavage were collected in two moments: before and 30 days after vaccination, to determine the activation profile of lymphocytes; the concentration of cytokines, antimicrobial peptides and total antibodies against the influenza virus vaccine. (AU)

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Scientific publications (11)
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
PIRES, RENIER S.; BRAGA, PEDRO G. S.; SANTOS, JULIANA M. B.; AMARAL, JONATAS B.; AMIRATO, GISLENE R.; TRETTEL, CAIO S.; DOS SANTOS, CARLOS A. F.; VAISBERG, MAURO; NALI, LUIS H. S.; VIEIRA, RODOLFO P.; MARANHAO, RAUL C.; PITHON-CURI, TANIA C.; BARROS, MARCELO P.; BACHI, ANDRE L. L. L-Glutamine supplementation enhances glutathione peroxidase and paraoxonase-1 activities in HDL of exercising older individuals. Experimental Gerontology, v. 156, DEC 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.
CALDO-SILVA, ADRIANA; FURTADO, GUILHERME EUSTAQUIO; CHUPEL, MATHEUS UBA; LETIERI, RUBENS VINICIUS; VALENTE, PEDRO AFONSO; FARHANG, MARYAM; BARROS, MARCELO P.; LACERDA BACHI, ANDRE LUIS; MARZETTI, EMANUELE; TEIXEIRA, ANA MARIA; MASSART, ALAIN. Effect of a 40-weeks multicomponent exercise program and branched chain amino acids supplementation on functional fitness and mental health in frail older persons. Experimental Gerontology, v. 155, NOV 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.
DE BARROS, MARCELO PAES; LACERDA BACHI, ANDRE LUIS; BATISTA DOS SANTOS, JULIANA DE MELO; LAMBERTUCCI, RAFAEL HERLING; ISHIHARA, RAFAEL; POLOTOW, TATIANA GERALDO; CALDO-SILVA, ADRIANA; VALENTE, PEDRO AFONSO; HOGERVORST, EEF; FURTADO, GUILHERME EUSTAQUIO. The poorly conducted orchestra of steroid hormones, oxidative stress and inflammation in frailty needs a maestro: Regular physical exercise. Experimental Gerontology, v. 155, NOV 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.
FELISMINO, EDUARDO S.; SANTOS, JULIANA M. B.; ROSSI, MARCELO; SANTOS, CARLOS A. F.; DURIGON, EDISON L.; OLIVEIRA, DANIELLE B. L.; THOMAZELLI, LUCIANO M.; MONTEIRO, FERNANDA R.; SPERANDIO, ADRIANE; APOSTOLICO, JULIANA S.; FRANCA, CAROLINA N.; AMARAL, JONATAS B.; AMIRATO, GISLENE R.; VIEIRA, RODOLFO P.; VAISBERG, MAURO; BACHI, ANDRE L. L. Better Response to Influenza Virus Vaccination in Physically Trained Older Adults Is Associated With Reductions of Cytomegalovirus-Specific Immunoglobulins as Well as Improvements in the Inflammatory and CD8(+) T-Cell Profiles. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, v. 12, OCT 12 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.
AMIRATO, GISLENE R.; BORGES, JULIANA O.; MARQUES, DANIELLA L.; SANTOS, JULIANA M. B.; SANTOS, CARLOS A. E.; ANDRADE, MARILIA S.; FURTADO, GUILHERME E.; ROSSI, MARCELO; LUIS, LAIS N.; ZAMBONATTO, RAQUEL F.; DA SILVA, ELIANE B.; POMA, SARAH O.; DE ALMEIDA, MARIANA M.; PELAQUIM, RENATO L.; DOS SANTOS-OLIVEIRA, LAIANE C.; SOUSA DINIZ, VINICIUS L.; PASSOS, MARIA E. P.; LEVADA-PIRES, ADRIANA C.; GORJAO, RENATA; BARROS, MARCELO P.; BACHI, ANDRE L. L.; PITHON-CURI, TANIA C. L-Glutamine Supplementation Enhances Strength and Power of Knee Muscles and Improves Glycemia Control and Plasma Redox Balance in Exercising Elderly Women. NUTRIENTS, v. 13, n. 3 MAR 2021. Web of Science Citations: 2.
BATISTA DOS SANTOS, JULIANA DE MELO; SOARES, CAMILA PEREIRA; MONTEIRO, FERNANDA RODRIGUES; MELLO, RALYRIA; DO AMARAL, JONATAS BUSSADOR; AGUIAR, ANDRESSA SIMOES; SOLEDADE, MARIANA PEREIRA; SUCUPIRA, CAROLINA; DE PAULIS, MILENA; ANDRADE, JULIANA BANNWART; ALMEIDA, FLAVIA JAQUELINE; PALAZZI SAFADI, MARCO AURELIO; MAU, LUCIANA BECKER; BRASIL, JAMILE MENEZES; RAMALHO, THERESA; LOURES, V, FLAVIO; VIEIRA, RODOLFO PAULA; DURIGON, EDISON LUIZ; LEAL DE OLIVEIRA, DANIELLE BRUNA; LACERDA BACHI, ANDRE LUIS. In Nasal Mucosal Secretions, Distinct IFN and IgA Responses Are Found in Severe and Mild SARS-CoV-2 Infection. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, v. 12, FEB 25 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.
PAIXAO, VITORIA; ALMEIDA, EWIN B.; AMARAL, JONATAS B.; ROSEIRA, TAMARIS; MONTEIRO, FERNANDA R.; FOSTER, ROBERTA; SPERANDIO, ADRIANE; ROSSI, MARCELO; AMIRATO, GISLENE R.; SANTOS, CARLOS A. F.; PIRES, RENIER S.; LEAL, FABYANO B.; DURIGON, EDISON L.; OLIVEIRA, DANIELLE B. L.; VIEIRA, RODOLFO P.; VAISBERG, MAURO; SANTOS, JULIANA M. B.; BACHI, ANDRE L. L. Elderly Subjects Supplemented with L-Glutamine Shows an Improvement of Mucosal Immunity in the Upper Airways in Response to Influenza Virus Vaccination. VACCINES, v. 9, n. 2 FEB 2021. Web of Science Citations: 1.
DOMINGOS, SIMONE APARECIDA; FRANCA, CAROLINA NUNES; TULETA, IZABELA; DA COSTA REZENDE BARBOSA, MARIANNE PENACHINI; LACERDA BACHI, ANDRE LUIS; NEVES, LUCAS MELO. Self-Care in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Urgency Lower Limb Amputation: The Influence of Sex, Marital Status and Previous Amputations. PATIENT PREFERENCE AND ADHERENCE, v. 15, p. 1083-1090, 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.
MONTEIRO, FERNANDA R.; ROSEIRA, TAMARIS; AMARAL, JONATAS B.; PAIXAO, VITORIA; ALMEIDA, EWIN B.; FOSTER, ROBERTA; SPERANDIO, ADRIANE; ROSSI, MARCELO; AMIRATO, GISLENE R.; APOSTOLICO, JULIANA S.; SANTOS, CARLOS A. F.; FELISMINO, EDUARDO S.; LEAL, FABYANO B.; THOMAZELLI, LUCIANO M.; DURIGON, EDISON L.; OLIVEIRA, DANIELLE B. L.; VIEIRA, RODOLFO P.; SANTOS, JULIANA M. B.; BACHI, ANDRE L. L. Combined Exercise Training and l-Glutamine Supplementation Enhances Both Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses after Influenza Virus Vaccination in Elderly Subjects. VACCINES, v. 8, n. 4 DEC 2020. Web of Science Citations: 1.
EL-MAFARJEH, ELIAS; MARTINS, GISELE HENRIQUE CARDOSO; PROBST, JESSICA JORGE; SANTOS-DIAS, ALANA; OLIVEIRA-JUNIOR, MANOEL CARNEIRO; DE BARROS, MARCELO PAES; DE OLIVEIRA, LUIS VICENTE FRANCO; DE ANDRADE, LEANDRO DAMAS; DA PALMA, RENATA KELLY; MORAES-FERREIRA, RENILSON; DE CAMARGO HIZUME-KUNZLER, DEBORAH; BACHI, ANDRE LUIS LACERDA; VIEIRA, RODOLFO P. Exercise Improves Lung Inflammation, but Not Lung Remodeling and Mechanics in a Model of Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis. OXIDATIVE MEDICINE AND CELLULAR LONGEVITY, v. 2020, OCT 17 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.
ALMEIDA, EWIN B.; SANTOS, JULIANA M. B.; PAIXAO, VITORIA; AMARAL, JONATAS B.; FOSTER, ROBERTA; SPERANDIO, ADRIANE; ROSEIRA, TAMARIS; ROSSI, MARCELO; CORDEIRO, TELMA G.; MONTEIRO, FERNANDA R.; AMIRATO, GISLENE R.; SANTOS, CARLOS A. F.; VIEIRA, RODOLFO P.; VAISBERG, MAURO; BARROS, MARCELO; BACHI, ANDRE L. L. L-Glutamine Supplementation Improves the Benefits of Combined-Exercise Training on Oral Redox Balance and Inflammatory Status in Elderly Individuals. OXIDATIVE MEDICINE AND CELLULAR LONGEVITY, v. 2020, JAN 22 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.

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