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Clogging processes of irrigation drippers due to interactions of calcium carbonate and solid particles

Grant number: 18/20099-5
Support type:Regular Research Grants
Duration: April 01, 2019 - March 31, 2021
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Agricultural Engineering - Soil and Water Engineering
Principal researcher:Antonio Pires de Camargo
Grantee:Antonio Pires de Camargo
Home Institution: Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola (FEAGRI). Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Campinas , SP, Brazil
Assoc. researchers: Aline Azevedo Nazario ; Bruno Molle ; Edson Eiji Matsura ; Jair Sebastiao da Silva Pinto ; Jose Antonio Frizzone ; Nassim Ait Mouheb ; Séverine Tomas ; Tulio Assunção Pires Ribeiro


Drip irrigation is potentially the best irrigation technique in terms of water use and fertilizers efficiency. However, emitters' clogging is a major problem in microirrigation that may cancel out potential benefits that could be provided by such type of irrigation systems. Clogging processes are influenced by water quality and emitters' design. In terms of water quality, clogging problems are caused by individual or combined effects of physical, chemical and biological agents. Usually clogging problems results from insufficient filtration, inappropriate chemical treatment of water or infrequent flushing routines. Even though, such problems may not be fully prevented only by maintenance routines, hence emitters' geometries less sensitive to clogging are preferable. Solid particles suspended in irrigation water are the most common form of emitters' plugging. Filtration systems are employed to prevent clogging, but small solid particles may escape filtration in practical applications. Depending on the physical-chemical and hydrodynamics conditions, aggregation and deposition of small particles may occur after filtration devices resulting in clogging of emitters. In terms of chemical agents, calcium carbonate precipitates are important causes of clogging. In waters of high concentration of calcium, calcium carbonate scales and agglomerates may cause clogging of emitters, valves, pipes and other devices of irrigation systems. We still know very little about clogging process due to interactions of solid particles and calcium carbonate precipitates within labyrinths of drippers. The understanding of clogging processes is essential to propose solutions intending to prolong the lifespan of microirrigation systems. This project builds on achievements obtained during Project FAPESP 15/19630-0 and accounts for the cooperation among FEAGRI/UNICAMP, INCT-EI/ESALQ/USP and PReSTI/IRSTEA (France). This research accounts for laboratory and field experiments. The main problems to be addressed are the investigation and understanding of clogging processes caused by interactions of calcium carbonate and small size particles, that escape filtering systems typically employed in microirrigation; and, the identification of patterns relating geometrical/hydrodynamics characteristics of drippers to the hydraulic performance, clogging sensitivity, transport and accumulation of sediments within drippers. We propose to evaluate commercially available models of drippers and prototypes of labyrinths manufactured in transparent material, as well as to compare experimental and numerical (CFD) results. We also intend to continue with the assessment of commercial drippers according to ISO/DTR21540 (under development) aiming to expand the database about performance of drippers operated under clogging risk due to solid particles and to support the standardized clogging test protocol. The project activities are grouped into the following working fronts: (1) Study of clogging processes analyzing commercial drippers in laboratory and in field; (2) Study of clogging processes and CFD simulations analyzing transparent prototypes of labyrinth; (3) Clogging tests of commercial drippers according to ISO/DTR 21540; (4) Studies of clogging at the experimental field of FEAGRI and at a commercial farm. (AU)

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Scientific publications (5)
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
ANA C. S. DE ARAUJO; JOSÉ A. FRIZZONE; ANTONIO P. DE CAMARGO; DIEGO J. DE S. PEREIRA; VERÔNICA G. M. L. DE MELO; WAGNER W. A. BOMBARDELLI. Discharge sensitivity of collapsible drip tapes to water temperature. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, v. 25, n. 1, p. 3-9, Jan. 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.
NICOLAS D. CANO; ANTONIO P. DE CAMARGO; GUSTAVO L. MUNIZ; JONESMAR DE OLIVEIRA; JOSÉ G. DALFRÉ FILHO; JOSÉ A. FRIZZONE. Performance of models to determine flow rate using orifice plates. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, v. 25, n. 1, p. 10-16, Jan. 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.
DE SOUSA PEREIRA, DIEGO JOSE; LAVANHOLI, ROGERIO; DE ARAUJO, ANA C. S.; DE CAMARGO, ANTONIO P.; AIT-MOUHEB, NASSIM; FRIZZONE, JOSE A.; MOLLE, BRUNO. Evaluating Sensitivity to Clogging by Solid Particles in Irrigation Emitters: Assessment of a Laboratory Protocol. JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING, v. 146, n. 11 NOV 1 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.
LAVANHOLI, ROGERIO; DE CAMARGO, ANTONIO PIRES; AVILA BOMBARDELLI, WAGNER WILSON; FRIZZONE, JOSE A.; AIT-MOUHEB, NASSIM; DA SILVA, ERIC ALBERTO; DE OLIVEIRA, FABRICIO CORREIA. Prediction of Pressure-Discharge Curves of Trapezoidal Labyrinth Channels from Nonlinear Regression and Artificial Neural Networks. JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING, v. 146, n. 8 AUG 1 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.
DE OLIVEIRA, FABRICIO CORREIA; LAVANHOLI, ROGERIO; DE CAMARGO, ANTONIO PIRES; AIT-MOUHEB, NASSIM; FRIZZONE, JOSE ANTONIO; TOMAS, SEVERINE; MOLLE, BRUNO. Clogging of drippers caused by suspensions of kaolinite and montmorillonite clays. IRRIGATION SCIENCE, OCT 2019. Web of Science Citations: 0.

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