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Effect of processing on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cadmium and lead on cocoa beans and derived products


Brazil is considered one of the world's major cocoa producer. In 2016, the country produced 215 thousand tons of cocoa. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds formed during incomplete combustion of organic matter and some of them are considered carcinogenic and genotoxic. The presence of PAHs in cocoa may be due to the use of smoke during the drying of the beans or to the high temperatures employed during roasting. The main sources of lead and cadmium contamination are related to their presence in the environment, with strong relation to the region where cocoa is produced. In order to protect human health and guarantee the safety of the products available in the market, the development of a study that screens the levels of PAHs formed in different cocoa processing conditions and evaluates the occurrence of Cd e Pb in Brazilian products is extremely important. Therefore, the objective of the present project is to i) understand the roasting process of cocoa beans (dried with and without smoke) through the study of PAHs formation kinetics and evaluate their formation and transference to cocoa derived products, ii) study the presence of inorganic contaminants Cd and Pb in the derived products in order to study their distribution, and iii) evaluate the occurrence of Cd and Pb in cocoa beans from the main Brazilian producing regions. Therefore, analytical methods will be optimized using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL) and inducted coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). (AU)

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Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
OLIVEIRA, ANA PAULA FERREIRA DE; MILANI, RAQUEL FERNANDA; EFRAIM, PRISCILLA; MORGANO, MARCELO ANTONIO; TFOUNI, SILVIA AMELIA VERDIANI. Cd and Pb in cocoa beans: Occurrence and effects of chocolate processing. FOOD CONTROL, v. 119, . (18/11623-2, 17/21451-1)
ABBALLE, CAROLINE; LEME GOMES, FERNANDA MORALEZ; LOPES, BEATRIZ DEZEMBRO; FERREIRA DE OLIVEIRA, ANA PAULA; BERTO, MARIA ISABEL; EFRAIM, PRISCILLA; VERDIANI TFOUNI, SILVIA AMELIA. Cocoa beans and derived products: Effect of processing on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels. LWT-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, v. 135, . (18/23045-3, 18/11623-2, 17/21451-1)

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